拉斯维加斯app

倒装句的用法
发 布: ggjxb 发布时间: 2016-11-08 点击率: 137


    倒装是一种语法手段,用于表示一定的句子结构或强调某一句子成分。倒装句有两种:完全倒装和部分倒装。 

   完全倒装解析
    1) 完全倒装即把整个谓语放到主语之前(是整个谓语动词,而非助动词)。
  例如:The teacher came in and the class began.(没有倒装)
  In came the teacher and the class began. (老师走了进来,然后开始上课。)
  2) there引出的完全倒装句:除了最常见的there be句型以外,there还可以接appear, exist, lie, remain, seem to be, stand等,一般都译成"有"的含义,构成完全倒装句。
  例如:There appeared to be a man in black in the distance.(远处有个穿黑色衣服的人。)
  3) 由地点和时间副词引出的完全倒装句:以地点副词here, there和时间副词now, then 开头,后面的动词是be, come, exist, fall, follow, go, lie, remain, seem, stand等,而主语又是名词时,构成完全倒装句。Up climbed the boy when his mother came.
  4)表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词且主语是名词时使用完全倒装
  5)在强调状语时1)当句首状语为方位词或拟声词,谓语动词为go, come等表示位置转移的动词时句子须倒装。例如:
  1 Up went the plane.
  2 In came the chairman and the meeting began.
  注:如果主语是代词则不发生倒装。例如:
  1 Out they rushed!
  2 Lower and lower he bent.
  (2) 当句首状语为表示地点的介词词组时,句子须倒装。例如:
  1 Round the corner walked a large policeman.
  2Under the table was lying a half-conscious young man.
  3 当句首状语由“only +副词”,“only +介词词组”,“only +状语从句”构成时,句子须倒装。例如:
  1 Only yesterday did he find out that his watch was missing. (不属于完全倒装)
  2 Only because there were some cancelled bookings did he get some tickets in the end.
  (6)当句首状语为here, there, now, then等时,句子须倒装,主语是代词时,句子不用倒装。例如:
  1)Here is a ticket for you.
  2)Now comes your turn.
  3)Here he comes.
  (7)以关联词so (…that)开头的句子中,句子须倒装。例如:
  1)So small was the mark that I could hardly see it.
  2)So quickly did the workmen finish their work that they were given a bonus.
  3)So much does he worry about his financial position that he can’t sleep at night.
  注:在该结构中,“so +形容词”是表语的前置;“so +副词”是状语的前置。
  .在直接引语之后
  在叙事性书面语中,直接引语后常跟asked Mary, answered John, said the old lady, grunted Peter之类的词语。在这些
  词语中,动词常的主语之前,主语是代词时,不用倒装。例如:
  1)“What do you mean?” asked Henry.
  2)“What do you mean?” he asked.
  . often, many a time等表示频度的状语置于句首时
  例如:Often did they think of going there, but they never had a chance.
  12.在as, though引导的让步状语从句中
  在as, though引导的让步状语从句中,一般将形容词、副词或名词等置于句首。例如:
  1)Small as the atom is, we can smash it.
  2)Big as the workpiece is, it is turned out with
  Out rushed a missile from under the bomber. 轰炸机肚底下窜出一枚导弹。
  Out he rushed.
  注意:
  1) 在here, there引出的倒装句中,当主语是普通名词时用完全倒装句,但当主语是代词时,就要用部分倒装句。
  例:Here comes the postman!(邮递员终于来了!注意实意谓语动词位于主语之前。)
  Here we are.(大家到了。注意系动词位于主语代词之后。)
  2) 当主语是代词,谓语是系动词,表语是说明性的词、词组和定语从句时,可以使用完全倒装句,起强调作用。
  例:Lucky is he who has been enrolled into a famous university.(他真幸运,被一所名牌大学录取了。)
  Typical for China is the crosstalk show where a pair of comedians entertains the audience with word play.(中国典型的是相声表演,两个喜剧演员通过文字游戏逗乐观众)
  
   
部分倒装解析
  1) 部分倒装即只把谓语的一部分(如助动词、情态动词等)放到主语前,或把句子的强调成分提前。
  Nor did he let the disease stop him from living the kind of life he has always dreamt about(疾病没有使他放弃过上梦想中的生活)
  2) 以否定词开头的句子要求部分倒装。注意下列句子中助动词或情态动词提前、甚至补充助动词的用法: 例:Not until yesterday did little John change his mind.(小约翰直到昨天才改变了主意。) In no country other than Britain, it had been said, can one experience four seasons in the course of a single day.(据说除了英国世界上没有哪个国家能让人在一天中感受到四季变化)
  3) 以否定副词开头并加状语放在句首的句子要求部分倒装。这些否定副词有barely, hardly, little, seldom, scarcely…… when, never, no sooner…… than, rarely, no more, not nearly, not only等以及only。 Only in the country can you learn the “true English”.
  4)一些如scarcely……when, no sooner ……than, hardly……when引导的主从复合句主句要求使用过去完成式。 注意:在部分倒装句中,只有助动词、情态动词或连系动词to be可以置于主语之前,其它部分都要置于主语之后。
  5)此外,一些介词+no+名词的结构中需要用部分倒装,这些结构包括at no time; by no means; by no manner of means; for no reason; in no case; in/under no circumstances; in no sense; in no way; on no account; on no consideration; at no point例如Under no circumstances should you lend Paul any money. 注意:
  a) 如果含有从句时,只要求主句倒装: 例:Only after he had spoken out the word did he realize he had made a big mistake.(只有当他已经说出那个字后才意识到自己犯了个大错误。)
  b) 如果上述否定副词出现在强调句型中的前半部分,不用倒装:
  例: It was not until he went abroad that he knew the truth of the fact.(直到他出国以后才了解到事实真相。)
  c) 如果hardly, scarcely后面接的是any, ever, at all时,意义类似almost no/ not/ never(几乎不、从不),则无须倒装。
  例:Hardly any people invited went there.(几乎没有什么受到邀请的人去那里了。)
  6) 由no matter how, however和how引导的状语从句要求部分倒装,因为形容词或副词通常紧跟在这三个引导词后面,然后才是主语和谓语,形成形式上的部分倒装句:
  例:I know nothing about this river, neither how long, how wide nor how deep it is.(我一点也不了解这条河,不知道它有多长,多宽或多深。)
  7) 由as引导的部分倒装句:
  a) 当as作为比较意义时,即用于as + adj./ adv. + as结构中时,如果把第一个as省略掉,就形成部分倒装句。
  例:Cautious as the rest of her family (was) , she didn't seem willing to give an immediate reply to my question.(正如她家里人一样谨慎小心,她似乎不愿意马上回答我的问题。)
  She charged the stairs, quick as a rabbit (ran).(她跑上楼去,跑得象兔子那么快!)
  b) 当 as引导让步状语时,和although, though一样,当用作“尽管”之义时,可以用于部分倒装句。
  Hard as he worked, he did not pass the exam.(虽然他很用功,但他还是没及格)
  c) 表示原因时,为了强调起见,也可以倒装。
  例:Tired as he was, we decided not to disturb him.(因为他太累了,大家决定不打扰他。)
  d) 等于so时,意义是“也,也是”
  例:She worked hard, so/ as did her husband. (她工作很努力,她的丈夫工作也很努力。)
  so, neither, nor倒装
  除了构成上述倒装句以外,还可以取代上文出现的名词、形容词甚至整句话,构成完全倒装句或部分倒装句。但这两种倒装的意义不同。
  a) 当so表示“也,相同,那样”时,通常表示对前一句肯定句的赞同、一致内容,要求使用完全倒装句:
  He promised to finish my homework, so did I.
  b) so /such ……that句型可以构成部分倒装句,表示强调so /such和that之间的部分:
  例:So selfish was she that everyone avoid talking with her.
  c)也存在such+be+主语的情况用以强调,例如Such was Albert Einstein, a simple man of great achievements.(阿尔伯特?爱因斯坦是一个有伟大成就的普通人)
  d) neither和nor共有4种倒装形式,其含义分别为:
  1) 完全倒装时:表示"也不",和上文a)用法正好相反,表示对前一句否定句的赞同或一致内容。
  例:You don't know what to do now, neither/ nor do I .(你不知道现在该做什么,我也不知道。)
  2) 和其它否定副词连用,表示"也(不)",也要求用完全倒装句:
  例:The besieged enemy could not advance, nor / neither retreat could they .(被包围的敌人既不能进,也不能退。)
  注意:若把这句话改成:"The besieged enemy could neither advance nor retreat.(被包围的敌人既不能进,也不能退。)"就不必倒装。
  She never laughed, nor did she ever lose her temper.
  3) 用在肯定句里,构成一般否定倒装:
  例:All that is true, nor must we forget it.(那全都是真的,大家可不能忘记。)
  部分倒装作用
  有承上启下作用,表示同意和赞同:
  例:A: I couldn't do anything for her.(我帮不了她。)
  B: Nor you could, but you might have got somebody to help her.(你是不能帮她,但你本可以找人帮她的。)
  2) 在进行比较的句子里,如果主语不是代词时,可以倒装:
  例:America consumes more energy than did our country.(美国消耗的能源比大家国家多。)
  3)在某些表示祝愿的句型中要求倒装。如May you happy.
  4)在文学作品中常出现倒装,有些是由于语法习惯,有些是为了简单的修辞,如Not even one cloud will I bring away(不带走一片云彩).
  不用倒装的地方
  注:如果only后面的词组不是状语,则不用倒装.
  Only Wang Ling knows this .
  如果直接引语后注明引语是什么人说的,而且主语是名词时,用倒装结构;主语是代词时,一般不用倒装。
  " Let's go ," said the man .
  there be结构的倒装
  在“there be”(或there + appear to be,come,exist, happen to be, lie, live, occur, remain, seem, seem to be, stand, used to be) 雪结构中,倒装形式为完全倒装。如:
  There were many students in the reading room in this evening.
  今晚阅览室里有许多学生。
  There is a TV set, a stereo system and a number of chairs in the sitting room.
  客厅里有一台电视机,一套组合音响和一些椅子。
  here,there,now,then等引起的倒装
  在以here,there,now,then等简短副词引起的句子中(前三个须用一般现在时),动词往往是be,come,go等时, 这类句子大多带有引起注意的含义。如:
  Here comes the bus.
  公共汽车来了。
  Here is the letter you have been looking forward to.
  你久盼的信在这儿。
  但要注意:如果主语是人称代词,则不用倒装。如:
  Here they are. 他们在这儿。
  省略if的非真实条件状语从句中的倒装
  虚拟结构中的条件从句省去if时,were, had, should须移至主语之前。如:
  Had you worked harder at college, you would have got better job.
  如果你在大学期间读书用功些,现在就会找到一份更好的工作。
  Were he better qualified, he would apply for the position.
  要是他的条件再好些,他就申请这个职位。
  what,how引起的倒装
  以What, how开头的感叹句(表语或宾语提前)。如:
  What beautiful weather (it is)!
  多好的天气啊!(表语提前)
  What a lovely picture he painted!
  他画了一张多好的画啊!(宾语提前)
  疑问词或连接词引起的倒装
  在疑问词或连接词whether等引起的从句中。如:
  Whatever you may say, I won’t go there.
  无论你怎样说,我都不会去那儿。(状语从句中宾语提前)
  What book he wants is not clear.
  他要什么书还不清楚。(主语从句中宾语提前)
  否定词位于句首时引起的倒装
  (1). never,seldom,hardly,little,few等引起的倒装
  否定词never,seldom,rarely,hardly,barely,scarcely,little,few等位于句首时所引起的倒装句通常为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式。如:
  Never shall I forget the days when you were with us.
  我很少有时间去看影片。
  (2). nowhere,no longer,no more等引起的倒装
  nowhere(无处),no longer(不再),no more(也不)等否定词位于句首时所引起的倒装句通常为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式:
  No longer was he in charge of this work.
  他不再负责这项工作了。
  (3). not until,not a,not in the least等引起的倒装
  not until(直到……才),not a(一个……也没有),not in the least(一点儿也不),not for a minute/moment(一点儿也不)等位于句首时,通常引起倒装(not a之后的名词作主语时除外),其形式通常为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式。如:
  Not until all the demands had been turned down did the workers decide to go on strike.
  一直到所有的要求遭到拒绝之后,工人们才决定罢工。
  Not once did he talk to me.
  他一次也没有和我谈过。
  (4). under no circumstances,by no means,in no way等引起的倒装
  in/under no circumstances(无论如何不),by no means (决不),in no case (无论如何不),in no way (决不),on no account (决不可),on no condition(决不)等短语位于句首时所引起的倒装句通常为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式。如:
  In no case must force be resorted to.
  决不准许诉诸武力。
  By no means is it true that all English people know their own language well.
  并非所有的英国人都通晓本国语。
  关联连词位于句首时引起的倒装
  (1). not only...but also引起的倒装
  not only...but also位于句首所引起的倒装句为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时形式或一般过去时形式,则为完全倒装形式。如: Not only should we not be afraid of difficulties, but also we should try our best to overcome them.
  大家不仅应该不怕困难,而且应该尽最大努力去克服它们。
  (2). neither...nor引起的倒装
  neither...nor位于句首引起的倒装句为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式。如:
  Neither Peter wanted the responsibility,nor did his wife.
  彼得不想担此责任,他妻子也不想担此责任。
  (3). hardly...when/no sooner...than引起的倒装
  hardly/scarcely/barely...when或no
  sooner...than位于句首所引起的倒装句为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式。如:
  Hardly had he arrived when/No sooner had he arrived than he was asked to leave again.
  他刚到就又被请走了。
  (4). so...that引起的倒装
  so...that位于句首所引起的倒装句为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式。如:
  So angry was he (He so angry) that he couldn’t speak.
  他如此愤怒,以致说不出话来。
  (5). such...that引起的倒装
  such...that位于句首所引起的倒装句为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式。如:
  Such was the force of the explosion that all the windows were broken.
  爆炸的威力如此之大,以致所有的窗户都被震破了。
  only引起的倒装
  当副词only位于句首并修饰状语或宾语时,引起句子的倒装,其形式通常为部分倒装,如果谓语动词为be的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装。如:
  Only in this way can you solve this problem.
  只有用这种方法,你才可以解决这个问题。
  Only yesterday did I finish this the book.
  到昨天我才读完那本书。
  表语位于句首时所引起的倒装
  当作表语的形容词、副词、介词短语等位于句首时,常常引起倒装,其形式为完全倒装:
  Aristotle says,“Plato is dear to me,but dearer still is truth.”
  亚里斯多德说,“吾爱柏拉图,但更爱真理。”
  Present at the meeting were Professor Smith,Professor Brown,Sir Hugh and many other celebrities.
  到会的有史密斯教授、勃朗教授、休爵士以及许多其他知名人士。
  状语位于句首时所引起的倒装
  (1). 当位于句首的状语是一些表示地点的介词短语或表示运动方向的副词(如away,back,down,in,off,out,up)时,常常引起倒装,其形式为全部倒装。如:
  Away went the runners.
  赛跑手们刷地跑开了。
  Down came the rain.
  雨哗地落下来了。
  (2).介词短语作地点状语,放在句首,后面跟的是不及物动词be,come,sit live,stand,lie,exist等时常常引起倒装,其形式为全部倒装。如:
  Next to the table is a chair.
  桌旁有把椅子。
  At the South Pole lies Antarctica, the coldest and most desolate region on earth.
  南极洲位于南极,它是地球上最冰冷和最荒凉的地区。
  状语从句中的倒装
  (1).让步状语从句中的倒装
  as引导的让步状语从句中的倒装:
  在as引导的让步状语从句中,位于句首的可以是形容词、名词、副词,还可以是谓语动词的一部分,从而形成从句的部分倒装。如:
  Tires as he was, he continued the work.
  虽然他累了,但是仍然继续工作。
  (2).方式状语从句中的倒装
  as引导的方式状语从句一般为正常语序,但是,如果主语比谓语长,可将谓语动词置于主语之前,形成完全倒装。如:
  He believed,as did all his family,that the king was the supreme lord.
  他和他全家人一样,都认为国王是至高无上的君主。
  (3).比较状语从句的倒装
  than引导的比较状语从句中的倒装:
  由than引导的比较状语从句一般为正常语序。但是,如果主语较长,可将谓语动词置于主语之前,形成完全倒装:
  Western Nebraska generally receives less snow than does eastern Nebraska.
  内布拉斯加西部地区的降雪通常比东部地区少。
  the more...,the more...结构中的倒装
  在以the more..., the more...引导的倒装结构中,采用部分倒装;如果主句的主语较长,可将谓语动词置于主语之前,形成完全倒装。如:
  The more books you read(宾语提前),the wider your knowledge is(表语提前).
  书读得越多,常识就越渊博。
  用于其他一些特殊句型中
  用于有直接引语的句型中
  在直接引语之后,“主语+ say/ ask之类的动词”可以用正语序,也可以倒装,在书面语中常用全部倒装。如:
  --“What do you mean?” asked Henry. (or:…Henry asked.)
  --“Perhaps he isn’t a bad sort of chap after all,” remarked Dave.
  --“I am aware of that,” replied the Englishman.
  --“Please go away,” said one child. “ And don't come back,” pleaded another.
  但是,主语是代词时不用倒装。请比较:
  --“What do you mean?” he asked.
  --“Who’s paying?” shouted the fat man at the corner. “You are,” I answered.
  用于表示祝愿/意愿的句型
  这种祈求性虚拟语气一般只用于几种相当固定的说法中。如:
  --Long live the People’s Republic of China!
  --Far be it from me to spoil the fun.
  “may + 主语 + 谓语”这种结构表示一种愿望或诅咒。
  --May you live a long and happy life!
  --May the best man win!
  --May he never set foot in this house again!
  --May you break your neck!
  用于 “so…that…”句型中
  把so置于句首的情形下,需要部分倒装。如:
  --So absurd did he look that everyone stared at him.
  --So suspicious did he become that…
  --So vigorously did he protest that the authorities reconsidered his case.
  用于as之后,表示状态和相似
  倒装在文学体裁中有时出现在as之后,例如:
  --She traveled a great deal, as did most of her friends.
  --The present owner is a keen art collector, as were several of her ancestors.
  --She looks forward, as does her secretary, to the completion of the building.
  在条件和让步分句中
  a. 用于条件句中
  表达虚拟的if从句(非真实条件从句)中的if可以省略,句子呈现倒装。例如:
  --Were I Tom I would refuse. (=If I were Tom…)
  --Had I known what was going to happen, I would never have left her alone. (=If I had known …)
  --Should you change your mind, no one would blame you. (= If you should change…)
  b. 用于以as, though引导的表达让步的从句中
  在这样的分句中,句子部分倒装。如果是though作引导词,句子可以用倒装也可以不用倒装,而如果是as为引导词,则一定要用倒装。如:
  --Eloquent though/as she was, she could not persuade them. (or: Though she was eloquent…)
  --Child though Tom was then, he had to earn his living. (= Though Tom was a child then…)
  --Change your mind as you will, you will gain no additional support.
  另外,that也可以象as, though一样用于倒装方式表示让步。如:
  --Fool that he was, he managed to evade his pursuers. (= Even though he was a fool…)
  --Poor that they were, they gave money to charity. (= Even though they were poor…)
  用于感叹句中
  感叹句通常采用正语序,即主语在前,谓语在后。但有时感叹句采用的却是疑问句的形式。尤其是在美国英语中,感叹句常常象普通疑问句。
  --Isn’t it cold! 真冷!
  --Am I fed up! 我腻烦死了!
  --Did he look annoyed! 他看来可气恼了!
  涉及副词so的两类常考倒装
  这类倒装主要见于以下两种情形:
  1. 当副词so后接形容词或副词位于句首时,其后要用部分倒装。如:
  So cold was the weather that we had to stay at home. 天气太冷,大家只好呆在家里。
  So fast does light travel that we can hardly imagine its speed. 光速很快,大家几乎没法想象它的速度。
  So sudden was the attack that we had no time to escape. 袭击来得非常突然,大家来不及逃跑。
  2. 当要表示前面提出的某一肯定的情况也同样适合于后者,通常就要用“So+助动词+主语”这种倒装结构。如:
  You are young and so am I. 你年轻,我也年轻。
  She likes music and so do I. 她喜欢音乐,我也喜欢。
  If he can do it, so can I. 要是他能做此事,我也能。

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